Without a recognition of the spiritual warfare between God and Satan history will
be "as confusing as a football game in which half the players are invisible." 
This conflict is magnified when it comes to the matter of revival. In revival God
advances his program by effusions of power. It is only to be expected that Satan
will seek to prevent such outpourings. When they do come, the enemy is to be expected
to resist them with his power to prevent this advancement, and when he cannot thwart
the advancement, he seeks to discredit and distort the movement as much as possible.
The book of Acts records an activity of Satan with each new advance of the Gospel
(Acts ch.’s 5, 13, 16, 19; 1 Thess. 2:18). Satan can also be seen behind the persecution
of the apostolic church by political structures of the day (Acts 4,5, 7,12,16,22-28).
His work as an angel of light to resist the truth by counterfeiting it is also clearly
revealed in the New Testament (2 Cor. 11:13-15; 1 Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Tim. 3:8-13; 1 John
2:18-19; 4:1- 4; 2 Peter 2:1-2).
In subsequent history every movement of spiritual renewal has been met with satanic
opposition. Satan has worked in opposition to revival in three ways: by seeking to
(1) persecute it, (2) pervert it, (3) prevent it.
SATAN'S DIRECT ATTACK BY PERSECUTION
This is done by outward and inward means. First,
1. By direct attack.
The early church faced the direct attack of Satan through the powers of government.
In the post-apostolic years the church went through ten great persecutions at the
hands of pagan Rome. The period from Constantine to the Reformation, which witnessed
the existence of a church-state union, saw this sacral system persecuting any renewal
movements that arose, suppressing and subduing them. With the Reformation came the
age of revivals, but, sad to say, many times revival movements were persecuted by
a sacral system called Protestant. In more recent times revival movements have been
persecuted by pagan religious systems, Islamic powers and Communist states.
Satan has also opposed revivals through the ridicule, misrepresentation and indifference
of the world. Professing Christians have opposed revival through ignorance, prejudice,
pride and party spirit. The Great Awakening saw the division in New England between
the "New Lights," who supported the revival, and the "Old Lights," who opposed it.
The Middle Colonies had a split among the Presbyterians between the "New Sides" and
the "Old Sides." Wesley and Whitefield faced opposition from the religious establishment.
J. Edwin Orr records one incident in revival history of the persecuting measures
of Satan and how the cause of the Gospel triumphed through it all. The record is
that of the revival in Assam, India, during the Fifth Evangelical Awakening. Orr
Unlike the sweeping success of the Khasi work, one of the immediate results of the
revival was an intense persecution of the Christians which broke out in the Autumn.
The growing churches in Phullen and surroundings suffered intensely. Christians were
evicted at midnight from their villages and driven into the jungle. The chief and
his henchmen made life miserable for believers in many villages. It was a sad time
for all who professed the faith.
Worse was to come. The 1907 persecution was followed by an "anti-revival," a resurgence
of blatant heathenism that mimicked the revival in form, heathen lyrics being sung
with great abandon and young people of both sexes dancing in ecstasy, followed by
great feasts. It spread like wildfire, with demonstrations in every village.
The Christian church suffered a serious set-back in the anti revival, the leaders
despairing. Paganism ran rampant in the Lushai Hills until, in 1912, the flowering
of the bamboo brought a horde of rats. Although stores of rice had been laid up in
anticipation, the rats appeared almost overnight and devoured the stores of food
and grain in the fields, leaving nothing.
Famine havoc was terrible. People subsisted upon roots in the hills, and the refugees
poured onto the plains, while multitudes died of starvation. Missionaries cared for
the orphans. In Wales, collections were made, and Christians in Lushai shared their
food ungrudgingly with hungry pagan people. The distress and the charity brought
an end to the pagan revival among the Mizos.
Revival was rekindled in 1913, breaking out with great power at presbytery meeting
in 1913, when the first Mizo was ordained to the pastorate. In 1919, even greater
revival broke out simultaneously in three separate places, spreading with speed even
to Tipperal and Manipur States. Four thousand were converted, more than the total
number of current communicants. Hymn-singing accompanied by the drum swept the land
in a wave of rejoicing.
One effect of these revivals, within a generation, was to make head-hunters into
a predominantly Christian people, inhabiting India's most Christian and most evangelized
area, in zeal far surpassing the early evangelized fields as well as the places which
claimed a thousand years or more of a traditional Christianity. 
The satanic source behind the persecution of the revived church is a fact to be recognized.
Yet, we must also realize that in spiritual warfare "greater is He who is in you
than he who is in the world" (1 John 4:4). God is always in sovereign control, and,
no matter how powerful the Devil is, he cannot overcome the purpose of redemption.
Satan always turns out to be the loser in persecuting the church.
His attacks are not always outward. Sometimes his onslaughts are inward.
2. By demonic accusation.
The powers of darkness also attack the minds of participants in revival with accusation
and oppression (Rev. 12:10). Jonathan Edwards detected the enemy's work in causing
depression and suicidal tendencies during the Great Awakening:
In the latter part of May, it began to be very sensible that the Spirit of God was
gradually withdrawing from us, and after this time Satan seemed to be more let loose
and raged in a dreadful manner. The first instance wherein it appeared, was a person
putting an end to his own life by cutting his throat... He had, from the beginning
of this extraordinary time, been exceedingly concerned about the state of his soul,
and there were some things in his experience that appeared very hopeful; but he durst
entertain no hope concerning his own good estate. Toward the latter part of this
time he grew much discouraged, and melancholy grew again upon him, till he was wholly
overpowered by it, and was in a great measure past the capacity of receiving advice,
or being reasoned with to any purpose. The devil took the advantage, and drove him
into despairing thoughts... The news of this extraordinarily affected the minds of
people here, and struck them as it were with astonishment. After this, multitudes
in this and other towns seemed to have it strongly suggested to them, and pressed
upon them to do as this person had done. And many who seemed to be under no melancholy,
some pious persons who had no special darkness or doubts about the goodness of their
state - nor were under any special trouble or concern of mind about any thing spiritual
or temporal - had it urged upon them as if somebody had spoken to them, “Cut your
throat, now is a good opportunity. Now! Now!” So that they were obliged to fight
with all their might to resist it, and yet no reason suggested to them why they should
do it. 
Many servants of God are facing the attacks of Satan today, especially those who
are seeking spiritual renewal in their lives and ministries. Knowledge of the spiritual
warfare is essential (Eph. 6:10-18). Such attacks are intensified in periods of revival.
We must be prepared for this inner conflict.
SATAN'S DISCREDITING ACTIONS OF PERVERSION
Satan will also endeavour to thwart the effects of revival by perverting it. This
he seeks to do
1. By Carnal Zeal.
Satan, seeing he cannot stop its advancement, will seek to pervert the work so
as to discredit it before the church and the world. He does so by stirring up and
reinforcing its defects. Satan will use the momentum of carnal zeal as a wrestler
uses the motion of his opponent to secure his defeat. Edwards notes this tactic of
the Devil in the Great Awakening:
If we look back into the history of the church of God in past ages, we may observe
that it has been a common devise [sic] of the Devil to overset a revival of religion,
when he finds he can keep men quiet and secure no longer, then to drive 'em to excesses
and extravagances. He holds them back as long as he can, but when he can do it no
longer, then he'll push 'em on, and if possible, run 'em upon their heads. 
In the Great Awakening a man named James Davenport went to excesses of fanaticism,
denouncing his opponents as unconverted and of the Devil, and brought the revival
under criticism. He later saw his error and publicly repented, but the damage was
already done. The Old Lights, led by Charles Chauncy, opposed the revival. Chauncy
opposed the movement in a work titled 'Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion
in New England.' Jonathan Edwards defended it and left us a theology of revival in
his writing, works that the church since has ignored to its own detriment. Lovelace
notes the valuable contribution Edwards made:
With the hindsight afforded by history we know that some of Chauncy's complaint issued
out of his own incipient rationalism, which moved increasingly from Puritan Calvinism
toward Unitarianism in subsequent decades. But Edwards took Chauncy's complaint seriously.
Where he could not contest Chauncy's findings, he incorporated them and restated
them more strongly. Perhaps one reason Chauncy's book failed to sell was that Edwards'
'Thoughts on the Revival in New England' and 'Religious Affections' reiterated everything
that was valid in Chauncy's critique and focused it to heal the defects of the awakening.
These works are a model of evangelical self-criticism. 
Edwards saw the working of Satan behind the excesses of the revival:
I don't know but we shall be in danger by and by, after our eyes are fully opened
to see our errors, to go to contrary extremes. The Devil has driven the pendulum
far beyond its proper point of rest; and when he has carried it to the utmost length
that he can, and it begins by its own weight to swing back, he probably will set
in, and drive it with the utmost fury the other way; and so give us no rest; and
if possible prevent our settling in a proper medium. 
He explains the purpose of the Devil in this tactic:
The devil in driving things to these extremes... has I believe, had in view a twofold
mischief hereafter, in the issue of things; one with respect to those that are more
cold in religion... to tempt them entirely to reject the whole work as being nothing
but delusion and distraction. And another is with respect to those that have been
very warm and zealous ... to sink them down in unbelief and darkness. 
The result of this driving of Satan to extremes is usually a spiritual burnout. This
has been repeated over and over in history.
Satan perverts also
2. By counterfeit revival.
Everything supernatural is not necessarily of God. Ignorance of this fact has been
a tool of the Adversary in times of God's supernatural working. Satan will counterfeit
what God is doing so as to work confusion. With every revival has come a counterfeit
revival. The revival under Moses saw the counterfeit miracles of the magicians of
Egypt, a lesson for us to heed (2 Tim. 3:8). The New Testament days saw a false gospel,
a false Jesus, a false spirit, false apostles, false Christians, a false assembly
and false experiences (2 Cor. 11:4, 13-15; Gal. 1:7-10; 2:4; Rev. 2:9, 24). In revival
seasons there is a danger of accepting everything extraordinary as evidence of the
Spirit's mighty working.
The working of the Holy Spirit in revival does not guarantee against false doctrine,
false emphasis and even false manifestations of the supernatural being present. Revival
does not exempt the church from the commands of Scripture to "test the spirits" (1
John 4:1) and to "examine everything carefully; hold fast that which is good" (1
Thess. 5:21). Satan's presence will certainly be manifest in times of revival. It
is not inconsistent to have a mixture of the true and the false during such times.
Edwards observed this:
Nor are many errors in judgement and some delusions of Satan intermixed with the
work, any argument that the work in general is not of the Spirit of God. However
great a spiritual influence may be, it is not to be expected that the Spirit of God
should be given now in the same manner as to the apostles infallibly to guide them
in points of Christian doctrine, so that what they taught might be relied on as a
rule to the Christian church. And if many delusions of Satan appear, at the same
time that a great religious concern prevails, it is not an argument that the work
in general is not the work of God, any more than it was an argument in Egypt that
there were no true miracles wrought there by the hand of God, because Jannes and
Jambres wrought false miracles at the same time by the hand of the devil. Yea, the
same persons may be the subjects of much of the influences of the Spirit of God,
and yet in some things be led away by the delusions of Satan, and this be no more
of a paradox than many other things that are true of real saints, in the present
state, where grace dwells with so much corruption, and the new man and the old man
subsist together in the same person; and the kingdom of God and the kingdom of the
devil remain for a while together in the same heart.
Many godly persons have undoubtedly, in this and other ages, exposed themselves to
woeful delusions, by an aptness to lay too much weight on impulses and impressions,
as if they were immediate revelations from God, to signify something future, or to
direct from where to go, and what to do. 
So often the Word of God is neglected and an unhealthy emphasis placed on the miraculous,
especially being caught up in direct spiritual guidance and revelations. These are
manifested in an increasing measure where there is ignorance of the Scripture on
the nature of sin and the work of the Spirit. One witness to the Welsh Revival commented:
"Towards the end there was too much talk about the Holy Spirit, and not enough about
the Lord Jesus." One criticism of that revival was the de-emphasis on Bible preaching
and overemphasis on the Spirit's guidance. Orr writes that "the Welsh revival took
scripture knowledge for granted, and preaching thus deemed superfluous was at a minimum."
Spiritual excesses resulted, causing Evan Roberts and Jessie Penn Lewis to write
the book, 'War on the Saints', to give instruction on how to discern the difference
between the Holy Spirit's working and that of the demonic activity. Edwards also
instructed as a check to excesses looking to the Word of God, illuminated by the
Why cannot we be content with the divine oracles, that holy, pure word of God, which
we have in such abundance and clearness, not since the canon of Scripture is completed?
… Why should any desire a higher kind of intercourse with heaven, than by having
the Holy Spirit given in His sanctifying influences, infusing and exciting grace
and holiness, love and joy, which is the highest kind of intercourse that the saints
and angels in heaven have with God, and the chief excellency of the glorified man
Christ Jesus? 
Besides the area of guidance, miracles are another realm where Satan can operate
under the cover of the supernatural. Certainly there is the fact of the supernatural
in revival, for God comes on the scene in evident manifestation. Revivals have been
marked by supernatural phenomena since the model revival of Pentecost (Acts 2). There
have been sounds of a rushing mighty wind, prostrations, tremblings, trances, healings,
mysterious drawings of men to meetings, etc. There is no denying that God has been
in much of these, working in His own sovereign way to accomplish His purpose. Yet
time has also proven much miraculous activity to have had no lasting effect spiritually,
but, in contrast, to have had a reverse effect.
There is a great danger in overemphasising the miraculous in times of revival. It
is possible to develop a "miracle-mania." This is an observation that comes from
the modern Indonesian Revival. Peters observes this in his evaluation of that revival:
Basic to the motivation of the movement in many instances are dreams, visions, ecstatic
experiences, healings, and related circumstances. Such experiences usually result
in compulsive motivation in people of para-psychological or occult backgrounds. Against
this I am not able, nor am I willing to argue. The weakness, however, is that these
experiences become the main content of the message. This happened with many teams
and individuals. Reciting experiences under aroused emotions may grip people's minds
and move them to respond, but this is not the means the Holy Spirit uses to regenerate
the hearts of people. Saving faith rests upon factual knowledge of Jesus Christ and
Him crucified for our sins and raised again for our justification. No experiences,
no matter how valid, exciting, meaningful and compelling to the individual, can substitute
for the Word of God.
The much hailed evangelism by illiterates produced a backlash in the form of present-day
barrenness, spiritual deadness and Gospel indifference in much of Timor and surrounding
islands. They are trying to remedy this today in the lay institute of Soe. This is
commendable. The damage, however, is done, and will be difficult to repair. 
Illustration after illustration from revival history can be given of the effects
of Satan's counterfeit revivals in hindering true revival. Lovelace brings us up-to-date:
[The] strategy of darkness in opposing revival, the intrusion of counterfeit movements
to capture those seeking salvation and further discredit genuine renewal, is also
especially apparent today. The Jesus movement, which was at times a patchwork of
carnal religiosity, has been followed by a circus of occult and Eastern sects promising
spiritual fullness and reality. Campuses which were recently penetrated by a new
Evangelical witness are now drowning in mystical propaganda. In some cases this has
had the expected effect, and current Evangelical renewal is dismissed as part of
the wave of Aquarian religiosity and superstitious nostalgia. This is a familiar
pattern from past history. The early fathers who discerned Satan behind the waves
of persecution they suffered saw his hand also in the gnostic counterfeits multiplying
around the church, and even in the mystery religions which caricatured its theme
of regeneration through the dying and rising of God. This explanation may itself
seem facile and superstitious. But the fact remains that the apostolic writers regarded
false religion as an antichristian weapon forged by the powers of darkness and expected
its growth to parallel that of the expanding church. 
May the church garrison itself with a deeper knowledge of the Word, illuminated by
the Spirit, that it may be able to face these stratagems of the Devil!
SATAN'S DEADENING ACTIVITY OF PREVENTION
"Revival is a sovereign work of God, but it never comes to passive waiting." So said
the late Dr. Peter Connolly. Whenever revival has come there has been a people prepared
for it by cleansing, unity and prayer (Acts 2:1). Thus an unclean believer-priest,
unfit to minister in the Heavenly Sanctuary in intercessory prayer, is a hindrance
to revival. Sin in the life and disunity in the church are definitely hindrances
to revival. Satan is certainly active in keeping believers defeated in their spiritual
lives and in promoting division of the body. The flesh is a ready instrument of the
Devil in the prevention of revival. Granting these elements have a definite measure
of satanic activity in them, we concentrate on two basic areas we believe Satan works
in to prevent revival. These areas are similar in that they keep the church from
seeing its real need of revival. Satan will blind the church to its need of revival
by giving a substitute or by satisfying it with something else. We see
evidence of both of these today. The Laodicean condition is chronic in our day: "Because
you say, 'I am rich, and have become wealthy, and have need of nothing,' and you
do not know that you are wretched and miserable and poor and blind and naked" (Rev.
3: 17). Satan is blinding the church today with a substitute for revival in some
circles and in others a satisfaction without it. Satan is preventing revival:
1. By seducing the church.
The word is out today that we are seeing a great revival sweeping the world. There
is no doubt that there is evidence of revival in various places on earth, such as
on some mission fields and lands that were once behind the Iron and Bamboo Curtains,
but what is generally called revival does not fit the biblical or historical pattern.
We are speaking of such phenomena as the charismatic and Signs and Wonders movements.
Are these evidence of true Holy Spirit revival? J. I. Packer's evaluation of the
charismatic movement can apply to its counterpart, the Third Wave:
Does this ideal of renewal at any point go beyond the historical evangelical notion
of revival? Yes: A vein of what I have called 'super-supernaturalism' runs through
it, becoming visible in the stress on tongues, prophecies, healing, and the expectation
of miracles. In evangelical thinking about revival it has constantly been diagnosed
as a mark of disturbing immaturity rather than of high spirituality.
Does the charismatic ideal of renewal at any point fall short of what Evangelicals
mean by revival? Yes: The notes of humility and awe in the presence of a holy God
and of the need to realize the sinfulness of sin, the evil of egoism and the radical
nature of repentance are rarely struck. As a result, the child-to-Daddy, buddy-to-Jesus
informality that charismatics often embrace and cultivate as a corrective of the
cold and distant formalism of pre-renewal religion easily becomes more childish than
childlike and actually stunts growth. 
There is no doubt that the charismatic and Signs and Wonders movements have within
them many sincere believers, and we echo their call for renewal, a Spirit-filled
life, openness and praise to God in our assemblies and zealous evangelism of all
men. But the movements are marked by theological immaturity and overemphasis on experience
and de-emphasis on doctrine. This opens them to delusion and seduction by the forces
The same tactics of Satan in perverting revival also are used in preventing it. More
and more we are seeing the inroads of occultism into the secular world, including
science, business, psychology and psychiatry. Tragically, this has infiltrated into
the professing church, especially through the so-called neutral science of psychology.
Practices of shamanism (witchcraft, sorcery) have come into the church in such terms
as positive imaging, positive confession, holistic healing. Some groups champion
these tactics in the name of "faith," preaching a "health-and-wealth gospel." Non-charismatic
evangelicals experiment in these practices in the name of positive thinking, possibility
thinking, and self-esteem. Hunt and McMahon get at the heart of the delusion:
The entire smorgasbord of therapies being encouraged by some Christian leaders is
being sampled by Christians in one form or another, either out in the secular world
or inside the church. Much of this influence has come into the church through Christian
psychology and the pseudo-psychologies of inner healing and healing of the memories.
The common denominator is self. Not everyone would identify with the desire to become
a god, but that is the lie that hooked not only Eve but her descendants. And to whatever
extent we seek our own will, seek to use God to bring about our will, pander to our
self-centred desires, or in any way are afraid or unwilling to surrender wholly to
God's will - to that extent we are exalting ourselves to the position of gods, whether
we call it that or not. The teaching is spreading that we don't ask God, but command
Him to give us all that is our divine right to possess and enjoy.
Whatever the label on the package, the product inside is the same old satanic ploy:
"The answer is within ourselves," we can "do it" if we only learn the "law" and "principles"
that apply and put them into operation by "faith." The goal is always to reward self
in some way. Though called by many names, it is still the lie that the Bible prophesies
will become the new "truth" upon which Antichrist's kingdom will be built and which
will eventually prove to be a foundation of sand. From this root of delusion the
entire tree of sorcery has sprung forth and blossomed, and is now being devoured
by this generation. 
The need is imperative for the church to search the Scriptures lest it accept a substitute
revival for the true and be seduced along a path of spiritual destruction. There
separating reformation from lasting revival. Lovelace agrees:
Even where the flesh, the world and the devil are relatively inactive in distorting
or resisting an awakening, the adoption of false principles is likely to upset its
course. And bad theology can make a work extremely vulnerable to the flesh and the
devil. Thus a shallow understanding of sin and the leaven of asceticism have deeply
deformed American evangelicalism since the early nineteenth century... For the purity
of a revival is intimately related to its theological substance. A deep work cannot
be done without the sharp instrument of truth. Unless revival involves and issues
in theological reformation, its energy will be contained and its fruits will not
Satan also is preventing revival:
2. By satisfying the church.
A false revival will satisfy and keep many from seeking the true riches, but we are
thinking of many others who are satisfied in a different way. Fundamentalists will
reject the position of the charismatics on grounds of doctrine, yet will continue
in their programs, content without any real demonstration of Holy Spirit power. Our
evangelistic techniques and programs of church growth have been "getting the job
done." This "show of success" has our churches in a state of satisfaction. True,
we hunger for more results, but we do not hunger for God! In what are called Grace
Churches we see so often a glorying in the "riches" of Reformed doctrine and an attitude
manifested that ''we have need of nothing" (since we have the truth). Dead orthodoxy
is equally a tool of the Devil as excessive enthusiasm. Our churches meet week after
week content with the status quo of spiritual experience. There is no experience
of biblical worship. The results can be explained entirely on natural grounds. It
has been said that the American church is 3000 miles wide and one inch deep. "Revival
conditions are not with us at present; this is a day of small things, and we remain
pygmy saints." 
The book of Judges is a book of revival. Time after time the record unfolds the circle
of apostasy, servitude, heart cry for deliverance, and a delivering judge (revival).
This is repeated over and over until the end, but the final circle comes short with
no heart cry. The deliverance comes in God's mercy, but only partially (Samson).
The real tragedy of our day is that there is no "heart cry" in our churches. We are
satisfied with our sub-standard experience. In our evangelism we are content to export
"more of the same" across the street and across the sea. We are satisfied and "have
need of nothing." As long as we are passionless and prayerless revival tarries. Ravenhill
pinpoints the condition of a sterile church and its need of soul travail:
The Church of our day should be pregnant with passionate propagation, whereas she
is often pleading with pale propaganda. To be sure, methods of child delivery have
altered with the advance of science; but again we say that science, that darling
of the doctors, cannot shrink the nine months of child-formation. Brethren, we are
not beaten by the time element. The preacher and church, too busy to pray, are busier
than the Lord would have them be. If we will give God time, He will give us timeless
souls. If we will hide in our soul-impotence and call upon His name, He will bring
forth our light as the noonday. The Church has advisors by the carload. But where
are her agonisers? Churches admit an all-time low in spiritual births. We can increase
our churches without increasing the Kingdom. (I know a family where all the children
are adopted. Many of us preachers have more adoptions than births.) The enemy of
multiplication is stagnation. When believers lacking births become burdened, and
soul-sterility sickens us, then we will pulsate with holy fear, and pray with holy
fervour, and produce holy fertility. At God's counter there are no "sale days," for
the price of revival is ever the same – travail. 
Satan opposes revival. When it comes he will counter it with persecution and seek
to divert and discredit its effects. In the meantime, his efforts are aimed at hindering
the coming of revival. May we not be ignorant of his devices (2 Cor. 2:11). May we
get into the Word of God and learn to use the Sword of the Spirit (Ps. 149:6)! May
we put on the whole armour of God and engage Satan in the heavenly warfare in Spirit-wrought
prayer (Eph. 6:10-18)! Thanks be to our exalted Lord, Satan is a defeated foe (John
12:31-32)! The victory is ours, "because greater is He who is in [us] than he who
is in the world" (1 John 4:4).
Dr. Robert H. Lescelius
Academic Dean of Georgia Baptist College and Theological Seminary, College Park,
 Richard F. Lovelace, Dynamics of Spiritual Life: An Evangelical Theology of Renewal
(Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1979), 256. This book has been a
helpful source of insight and information, especially Chapter 8, "How Revivals Go
 J. Edwin Orr, Evangelical Awakenings in Southern Asia (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship,
Inc., 1975), 116-117.
 Jonathan Edwards, A Narrative of Surprising Conversions, in Selected Works of
Jonathan Edwards, 3.Vols. (London: Banner of Truth Trust, 1965), 1:69-70.
 Jonathan Edwards, Thoughts on the Revival of Religion in New England, quoted
in Lovelace, Dynamics, 259.
 Lovelace, 243.
 Edwards, quoted by Lovelace, 260.
 Ibid., 260-61.
 Jonathan Edwards, The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God, in
Selected Works of Jonathan Edwards, 3 Vols., 1:103-104.
 Orr, Evangelical Awakenings in Southern Asia, 102.
 Edwards, Thoughts on the Revival in New England, quoted by Lovelace, 266.
 George W. Peters, Indonesian Revival (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973),100-101.
 Lovelace, 261.
 J.1. Packer, Keep In Step With the Spirit (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H.
Revell Co., 1984),24748.
 David H. Hunt and T. A. McMahon, The Seduction of Christianity (Eugene, Oregon:
Harvest House Publishers, 1985),90.